By Roger Crowley
A gripping exploration of the autumn of Constantinople and its connection to the realm we are living in today.
The fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in heritage and the top of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and entire account of the conflict among Mehmet II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the interval in historical past that used to be a precursor to the present clash among the West and the center East.
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Extra resources for 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West
Consequently, they all challenge the idea of the EU’s external border as a ﬁrm border between Italy and Libya and show that the southern EU border, rather than being a linear and stable geographical demarcation, is a discontinuous and porous space encompassing the area between southern Italy and Sub-Saharan Africa. This reading of the border calls into question the common assumption that the state regulates people’s entry/stay into its territory. States certainly play a crucial role but the example of current migration projects in Libya suggests that non-state actors such as the IOM partake, shape and determine state policy on migration.
1 The deportation from Italy to detention camps in Libya followed the signing in August 2004 of an agreement between the two countries on combating illegal migration into the EU. Despite repeated European Parliament, UN Human Rights Committee, and NGO requests to make the agreement public, its contents continue to remain undisclosed. 2 No oﬃcial data is available on the Lampedusa migrants’ countries of origin or reasons for migrating. While the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) points to the presence of refugees and asylum seekers ﬂeeing persecution among those detained at Lampedusa as well as among those expelled to Libya, the Lampedusa authorities refer to those held at their center as ‘illegal migrants’ and claim that there are virtually no asylum seekers present among migrants who depart from Libya.
See footnote 14. 41 Given the short amount of time that elapsed between the arrival of the migrants and their deportation (at times as little as 24 hours), NGOs claim that it is unlikely that the CPTA authorities examined individually the cases of 1,000 people.
1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West by Roger Crowley