By Kenneth L. Gosner
Более a thousand иллюстраций, сгруппированных по визуальному сходству, демонстрируют виды морских растений и животных атлантического побережья Северной Америки от залива Фанди до мыса Гаттерас. Путеводитель содержит советы, как находить различные виды, используя информацию по географическому распространению, местообитанию, сезону активности и климату.
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Extra resources for A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore
Issues of energy and instinctive behavior are both crucial for understanding the origins of play. In his subsequent book on human play (Groos, 1901) Groos altered his views. Whereas in animals play is derived from instinct, for humans instinct is not an appropriate concept. Likewise, while he earlier viewed imitation as a process separate from instinct, now ‘‘Imitation is the connecting link between instinctive and intelligent conduct’’ (Groos, 1901: 281). Writers at this time were not aware of the ways in which social experience could influence the performance of behavior patterns typically labeled as instinctive.
The denial of subjective factors did not have an immediately detrimental effect on most ethological research and probably was salutary: There was so much basic work to be done in describing and analyzing the myriad behavior patterns and diversity in courtship, predation, and social organization. One outcome, however, was to ensure that play remained a topic largely neglected by researchers who wanted to be considered ‘‘hard’’ rather than ‘‘soft’’ scientists. Many persons studying play in animals, as well as in human beings, viewed play as containing a subjective component.
5 Applying the Perspective: Horsing Around People have kept, bred, raised, trained, worked, ridden, raced, and studied horses (Equus caballus) for millennia. 3 Exaggerated movements involving running, jumping, bucking, and related patterns of behavior performed by horses, alone or in groups, characterize locomotor play. 1a). 1b). 2). Thus, a large series of prominent activities involving elements derived from locomotor, grooming, feeding, fighting, and sexual behavior patterns constitute play in horses.
A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore by Kenneth L. Gosner