By Richard C. Alkire, Dieter M. Kolb
This can be a vital booklet for researchers in electrochemistry; it covers parts of either primary and sensible value, with experiences of top of the range. the fabric is especially good offered and the alternative of issues displays a balanced editorial coverage that's welcomed.
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Extra info for Advances in Electrochemical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 8
Y. In liquid electrochemistry, supported electrolytes can therefore be used to avoid such complications, but in the case of solid electrolytes su‰ciently high ionic conductivities are often di‰cult to be achieved. e. materials), standard reference electrodes such as the calomel electrode in aqueous solutions are unknown in solid state electrochemistry. Often identical reference and working electrodes are used. Miniaturized working electrodes o¤er a possibility to cope with these di‰culties: Owing to their much larger electrochemically active areas, macroscopic counterelectrodes lead to voltage drops which are often negligible compared to the overpotential of a microelectrode.
These inconsistencies, which often hinder generally accepted mechanistic interpretations, can partly be explained by the fact that the porous cathodes are often morphologically and chemically ill-deﬁned, considerably depend on the preparation procedure, and can change during the measurements [194–196]. Plenty of research is still required to solve this complex problem; new results obtained by means of deﬁned microelectrodes are discussed in Sec. 5. Finally, two remarks regarding terminology. If an electrochemical reaction displays a negligible resistance, the corresponding electrode is called a ‘‘reversible electrode’’.
At a ﬁrst glance one might believe that the low-frequency arc facilitates a quantiﬁcation of the electrical properties of the grain boundary between the microelectrodes. However, even though such local measurements yield valuable information, their quantitative interpretation is more intricate. Since resistive grain boundaries are dielectrically short-circuited at high frequencies, the high-frequency arc reﬂects the situation without grain boundaries: R1 is twice the spreading resistance if the distance between the microelectrodes is larger than 5d me and C1 approximately corresponds to ebulk d me , at least for negligible stray capacitances.
Advances in Electrochemical Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 8 by Richard C. Alkire, Dieter M. Kolb