By Hans Ruthenberg
In early 1961 the Ho-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung (Ho-Institute for monetary study) tested an "African reports Centre" with the aid of the Fritz-Thyssen-Foundation to behavior study into the commercial and political difficulties of constructing international locations, with spe cial connection with the African countries. through investigations into thestructure and clients of improvement within the constructing nations, the experiences Centre will goal at contributing in the direction of the construction of a actual foundation, at the foundation of which the Federal Republic's increase ment coverage should be performed successfully. during this "age of improvement" the social and monetary sciences are faced with manifold projects. In fixing those, interdisciplinary co operation will end up constructive or even crucial, if improper and slender decisions are to be kept away from. Co-operation among scientists and institutes engaged in several branches of analysis will make attainable a greater und er status of the advanced practical dating which be certain fiscal occasions and their mutations outdoors Western business society than should be often completed by way of an remoted technique. clever total monetary making plans, for instance, calls for technological research simply up to an exact wisdom of social constitution or actual context. At this aspect the economist needs to co-operate heavily with the engineer if he needs to prevent wasting his manner generally styles of progress. For, "des lors que nous parions (du developpement) en quantites globales, nous ne parions de rien" (LoUIs ]OSEPH LEBRET).
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Some of the larger farmers are former chiefs who invested their compensation money in tractors. They first engaged in contract work, but later switched to farming on their own. 73 shs/bunch. In both surveys, 30 p. c. of all families receive non-agricultural income. 7 Without rent for house. BECK calculates rent per family and year as 420 shs. Sourees: a) BEcK, R. : An economic study of coffee-banana-farms in the Central Machame area. 1961. Mimeo. 1963. b) Agr. Dep. District Book, Moshi. 5 6 28 some of the big wheat farmers are in the habit of leasing land from smaller farmers for one year against the payment of one bag per acre, or every 9th bag.
This has led to private farming extending over previously communal pasture land. This, in turn, reduces the shortage of land. Land has become cheaper. An increase in farming land, coupled with a decrease in livestock, leads to less manure becoming available. Erosion is on the increase. Those Wakara who settle on the mainland forget their laborious but fertilitypreserving practices and revert to the normal "soil mining" practices of the Wasukuma. Their system of land use is not an example which others follow.
In spite of this, the system does not by any means ensure the preservation of soil fertility. In general, the same crop or the same mixture of crops is grown on one field until decreasing yields force the farmer to leave the field fallow. There is plenty of manure in the "bomas", but it is not spread on the fields. In this respect Tanganyika contrasts unfavourably with neighbouring countries. Manure is a commodity much sought after in Kenya. From Rhodesia it is reported that approximately one-third of the farmers use manure.
Agricultural Development in Tanganyika by Hans Ruthenberg