By Robert Klein, George Enders
This different attempt prep consultant lets you attempt your wisdom of crucial anatomy, histology and telephone biology recommendations for the USMLE Step 1; perform with 500 USMLE Step 1-style questions with referenced solutions; evaluation motives for correct and fallacious answers;and construct self assurance, abilities, and data.
Read or Download Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology PreTest Self-Assessment and Review, Third Edition (PreTest Basic Science) PDF
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Extra info for Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology PreTest Self-Assessment and Review, Third Edition (PreTest Basic Science)
Oocyte (germ cell) maturation involves several stages of follicular development (granulosa cells plus the oocyte): primordial follicle → primary follicle → secondary follicle → mature, or Graafian, follicle. In the secondary follicle, the stroma differentiates into a theca. The theca interna synthesizes androgens, which are converted into estradiol by granulosa cells. After ovulation, these thecal cells form the theca lutein; the granulosa cells become the granulosa lutein, which produces progesterone (see figure below).
There are skin diseases with a cell biological etiology. Psoriasis is a disease characterized by dermal and epidermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. Those cells release cytokines, which cause hyperplasia of the epidermis. Proliferation occurs throughout the epidermis and is no longer restricted to the basal layer and there is a thickening of the stratum corneum with nucleated keratinocytes present. Pemphigus is an autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies are produced to the desmogleins, members of the cadherin family.
In type I diabetes mellitus formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) an autoimmune reaction results in destruction of beta cells and the absence of insulin. Type II diabetes, formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes mellitus. Type II diabetes can occur at any age and is reaching epidemic proportions in the United States. Type II diabetes begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which adipocytes, muscle cells, and hepatocytes cannot efficiently use insulin because of a decrease in insulin receptors or defective glucose transporter function.
Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology PreTest Self-Assessment and Review, Third Edition (PreTest Basic Science) by Robert Klein, George Enders