By N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)
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According to Equation (2), the effectiveness of a U S presentation in strengthening the link between the U S representation and that of a given C S is reduced as the C S itself gains associative strength. Equation (3) (which now, it may be noted, constitutes a fully developed error-correcting rule, formally equivalent to the W i d r o w - H o f f delta rule—see Gluck Sc Bower, 1988) means that U S effectiveness will be reduced by the presence of other CSs having associative strength. In terms of the S O P model, several C S nodes will have links with a c o m m o n U S node, and A2 activity in the U S node evoked by any or all of these CSs will hmit the ability of the U S to evoke the A l state.
E. ), Information processing in animals: Conditioned inhibition (pp. 2 3 3 - 2 6 5 ) . Hillsdale, NJ: E r l b a u m . Wagner, A. , Logan, F. , & Price, T. (1968). Stimulus selection in animal discrimination learning. JoMWij/ of Experimental Psychology, 16, 171-180. Warren, H . C . (1921). A history of the association psychology. L o n d o n : Constable. C H A P T E R Instrumental Conditioning Anthony Dickinson I. I N T R O D U C T I O N Instrumental behavior refers to those actions whose acquisition and mainte nance depend on their consequences for the animal or, in others words, on the fact that the action is instrumental in causing some outcome.
Table 2 shows the design of one of their experiments. All their subjects (pigeons) were given initial training in which presentations of t w o stimuh, a blue and a horizontal line, were rehably followed by food; t w o other stimuli, green and vertical lines, were not. N e x t , the birds were divided into t w o groups for a phase of second-order conditioning in which the stimuli from the first phase of training were presented as t w o pairs. T h e groups differed only in that for one, the stimuli that may be presumed to be similar were paired; the other received pairings of the dissimilar stimuli (see Table 2).
Animal Learning and Cognition by N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)