N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)'s Animal Learning and Cognition PDF

By N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 0080571697

ISBN-13: 9780080571690

ISBN-10: 0121619532

ISBN-13: 9780121619534

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According to Equation (2), the effectiveness of a U S presentation in strengthening the link between the U S representation and that of a given C S is reduced as the C S itself gains associative strength. Equation (3) (which now, it may be noted, constitutes a fully developed error-correcting rule, formally equivalent to the W i d r o w - H o f f delta rule—see Gluck Sc Bower, 1988) means that U S effectiveness will be reduced by the presence of other CSs having associative strength. In terms of the S O P model, several C S nodes will have links with a c o m m o n U S node, and A2 activity in the U S node evoked by any or all of these CSs will hmit the ability of the U S to evoke the A l state.

E. ), Information processing in animals: Conditioned inhibition (pp. 2 3 3 - 2 6 5 ) . Hillsdale, NJ: E r l b a u m . Wagner, A. , Logan, F. , & Price, T. (1968). Stimulus selection in animal discrimination learning. JoMWij/ of Experimental Psychology, 16, 171-180. Warren, H . C . (1921). A history of the association psychology. L o n d o n : Constable. C H A P T E R Instrumental Conditioning Anthony Dickinson I. I N T R O D U C T I O N Instrumental behavior refers to those actions whose acquisition and mainte­ nance depend on their consequences for the animal or, in others words, on the fact that the action is instrumental in causing some outcome.

Table 2 shows the design of one of their experiments. All their subjects (pigeons) were given initial training in which presentations of t w o stimuh, a blue and a horizontal line, were rehably followed by food; t w o other stimuli, green and vertical lines, were not. N e x t , the birds were divided into t w o groups for a phase of second-order conditioning in which the stimuli from the first phase of training were presented as t w o pairs. T h e groups differed only in that for one, the stimuli that may be presumed to be similar were paired; the other received pairings of the dissimilar stimuli (see Table 2).

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Animal Learning and Cognition by N. J. Mackintosh (Eds.)


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