By E.J. Milner-Gulland, John M. Fryxell, Anthony R.E. Sinclair
Regardless of the wealth of average old study carried out on migration over a long time, there's nonetheless a dearth of hypothesis-driven experiences that totally combine concept and empirical analyses to appreciate the factors and results of migration, and a taxonomic bias in the direction of birds in a lot migration examine. This publication takes a comparative, built-in view of animal migration, linking evolution with ecology and administration, conception with empirical examine, and embracing the entire significant migratory taxa (including human pastoralists). The scope extends past the objective organism to think about the ecosystem-level dynamics of migration. The emphasis is on interesting new study avenues which are now starting up, even if because of advances in our figuring out of migration as a organic phenomenon or throughout the availability of a number of new applied sciences.
Broad subject matters that emerge contain integrating migration into the large spectrum of stream habit, the necessity for a comparative and cross-taxonomic technique that considers migration at more than a few temporal and spatial scales, and exam of the major roles of source uncertainty and spatial heterogeneity in riding migratory habit. The booklet identifies the opportunity of new instruments to revolutionize the learn of migration, together with satellite-tracking know-how, genomics, and modeling - all of that are associated with expanding computing strength. we're now at the verge of a step forward in migration learn, that's an important given the a number of threats that face the conservation of migration as a phenomenon, together with weather swap.
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Additional info for Animal Migrations. A synthesis
Such observations are what we might expect, based on the general outcomes of our models. Rarely do we know, however, which pairs of strategies are represented; is a migrant behavioural type exploiting the best of all possible habitat combinations, or is it eking out a secondrate coexistence on poorer breeding habitat? Are non-migrants evolutionary winners or losers, inevitably on their way out, but caught at present in a transient snapshot of temporary coexistence? These alternate possibilities, predicted by our simple model, call for a fresh look at the fitness of migrants vs.
By migrating, animals can escape periods of food shortage and low survival, which is thought to be one of the major factors driving the evolution of migration (Alerstam et al 2003, but see Holland et al. 2006b). Migration behaviour can be performed in a way that maximizes survival en route, so safety could be a useful currency that animals strive to optimize (Alerstam and Lindström 1990). Alternative surrogate currencies for fitness often used in studies of migration are energy and time. Energy minimization should be used if food availability is limited along the migratory route.
More recent models on the evolution of migration have typically used more highly structured models and less generic contrasts between habitats (Lundberg 1987; Kaitala et al. 1993; Kokko and Lundberg 2001; Griswold et al. 2010). For example, 30 T H E O R E T I C A L R E F L E C T I O N S O N T H E E VO L U T I O N O F M I G R AT I O N Kaitala et al. (1993) evaluate conditions under which over-wintering migration is an ESS in an age-structured population of birds that must breed in one habitat, developing a theme first formally developed by Lundberg (1987) in a graphical model.
Animal Migrations. A synthesis by E.J. Milner-Gulland, John M. Fryxell, Anthony R.E. Sinclair