By Tharwat F. Tadros
Whereas at the moment on hand titles both concentrate on the fundamentals or on very particular subtopics, this article meets the necessity for a accomplished survey of surfactants and their houses, with a powerful emphasis on functions and their correlation to the basics.
the writer covers their category, actual houses, part habit, adsorption, results - similar to wetting, spreading and adhesion - in addition to business functions in own care and cosmetics, prescription drugs, agrochemicals and meals items.
Professor Tadros is a widely known specialist relating to surfactants, with a lot event in colloid technology. the following, he makes use of his commercial adventure to shut the space among basics of surfactants and their relevance and functions in perform.
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Extra resources for Applied Surfactants: Principles and Applications
However, the relative contribution of the two eﬀects is diﬃcult to assess quantitatively. 7 Micellization in Other Polar Solvents In strongly polar solvents, such as formamide and ethylene glycol, micelles are formed with qualitatively the same features as in water. 6 illustrates this, showing the surface tension results for cetylytrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in formamide and ethylene glycol . c. is higher in formamide than in water (100 mM compared with 1 mM in water). The micelles are also smaller and the aggregation number is lower.
6) Polymer molecular weight; a minimum molecular weight of @4000 for PEO and PVP is required for ‘‘complete’’ interaction. (7) Amount of polymer; the CAC seems to be insensitive to (or lowers slightly) with increasing polymer concentration. T2 increases linearly with increasing polymer concentration. (8) Polymer structure and hydrophobicity; several uncharged polymer, such as PEO, PVP and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH), interact with charged surfactants. g. hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), dextran and polyacrylamide (PAAm).
One of the main advantages of the sorbitan esters and their ethoxylated derivatives is their approval as food additives. They are also widely used in cosmetics and some pharmaceutical preparations. g. linolin (wool fat) and caster oil ethoxylates. g. as solubilizers. 6 Amine Ethoxylates These are prepared by addition of ethylene oxide to primary or secondary fatty amines. 6. 6 The above surfactants acquire a cationic character if there are few EO units and if the pH is low. However, at high EO levels and neutral pH they behave very similarly to nonionics.
Applied Surfactants: Principles and Applications by Tharwat F. Tadros