By Elizabeth Tedsen, Sandra Cavalieri, R. Andreas Kraemer
The Arctic sector performs a major function in regulating the world’s weather and can be hugely impacted by means of weather swap, with usual temperatures emerging virtually two times as speedy because the remainder of the area and sea ice melting a lot swifter than formerly expected. those swift alterations can have major affects on human task within the quarter and at the Arctic marine surroundings.
This booklet attracts at the result of the 2008-2009 Arctic rework venture, funded through the eu Commission‘s Directorate normal of exterior relatives, which engaged specialists in a transatlantic dialogue at the roles of the ecu Union and usa in mild of the Arctic’s altering weather and political and felony complexities. . The ebook addresses the numerous alterations and advancements within the marine Arctic, with descriptions and suggestions reflecting the present governance atmosphere. A finished evaluation of environmental governance and sustainable improvement within the Arctic is created. Chapters discover affects and actions by way of zone, taking a look at fisheries, delivery, and offshore hydrocarbon within the Arctic, and at coverage ideas and methods for making improvements to marine governance within the sector. a selected concentration is given to the jobs of the eu Union and usa and possibilities for cooperation to reinforce Arctic environmental governance.
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Extra resources for Arctic Marine Governance: Opportunities for Transatlantic Cooperation
A variety of ocean depth levels adds regional diversification. In the Arctic region, extended continental shelves, particularly along the Russian coastline (see also Chap. 1 for the ongoing claims by circumpolar states) result in rather shallow coastal waters. Across the North Pole, on the other hand, deep sea plateaus are cut by oceanic rims, providing for an entirely different environment. Biodiversity is clustered in areas of higher productivity with warmer waters, especially in the Barents and Chukchi Seas and the Bering Shelf, which host migratory seabirds, marine mammals, and some of the most important fisheries in the world (ACIA 2005).
The implementation plan lays out initial steps required to achieve the Policy’s objectives, focusing on specific actions and nine priority objectives. One of these priority areas is on “Changing Conditions in the Arctic” and “addressing environmental stewardship needs in the Arctic Ocean and adjacent coastal areas in the face of climate‐induced and other environmental changes”. The draft plan focuses on the impacts of climate change in the Arctic region, highlighting opportunities and challenges presented by rapidly diminishing sea ice and resulting human and environmental changes and needs.
Generally, oceans serve as a sink for CO2, but increased anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 concentrations have already led to a higher rate and scope of ocean acidification. This is of particular importance to the Arctic Ocean, since CO2 is more soluble in cold water. Thus, due to its low water temperature, the Arctic Ocean faces more rapid rates of increasing acidification by absorbing more carbon dioxide than other oceans do (Robbins 2012). Ocean acidification can lead to a reduction in the diversity and abundance of calcareous organisms, an important marine food source, and thereby affect the rest of the Arctic food chain (CAFF 2010).
Arctic Marine Governance: Opportunities for Transatlantic Cooperation by Elizabeth Tedsen, Sandra Cavalieri, R. Andreas Kraemer