By Sarah Jane George, Jason Johnson
Overlaying the main devastating disorder within the Western global, this guide and prepared reference presents a entire account of the several phases and elements within the improvement of the atherosclerotic plaque. every one bankruptcy is written by way of specialists within the box and highlights the function of particular mediators of atherosclerotic plaque improvement, in addition to power healing ambitions. a large number of this updated info is conveyed when it comes to tables and schematic figures, in a comfortably understandable demeanour. essential for grasp and PhD scholars, researchers, MDs and teachers in vascular biology and cardiology, in addition to for teachers and scientists within the pharmaceutical undefined.
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Extra info for Atherosclerosis: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms
Homeostatic chemokines are also essential for the appropriate trafﬁcking of mature lymphocytes through the secondary lymphoid organs in response to the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 via the chemokine receptor CCR7 [17, 18]. 2 Key Chemokine Functions in Atherogenesis Experimental evidence derived from animal models, primary cell culture systems, immunohistochemistry of atherosclerotic plaques, and genetic association studies have all shown a role for numerous chemokines in atherosclerosis. Following endothelial damage and activation, chemokine expression is upregulated and these are presented on the endothelial surface by GAG binding or, in the case of CX3CL1 (fractalkine), expressed as membrane-bound molecules .
This leads to recruitment and adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to the area. In addition, platelets directly bind leukocytes and therefore act as bridging cells between the endothelium and plaque-forming cells . Platelets also release platelet factor 4 (PF4) in atherosclerotic plaques  and promote monocyte differentiation into macrophages and uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages . 1b). Leukocyte recruitment occurs through a series of events involving adhesion molecules. First, leukocytes roll along the endothelial surface of the vessel wall, which is mediated by endothelial expression of selectins, including P-selectin.
2009) The role of reverse cholesterol transport in animals and humans and relationship to atherosclerosis. J. ), S189–S194. , et al. (2007) PPARgamma activation primes human monocytes into alternative M2 macrophages with anti-inﬂammatory properties. , 6, 137–143. C. (2006) Matrix metalloproteinases regulate migration, proliferation, and death of vascular smooth muscle cells by degrading matrix and non-matrix substrates. Cardiovasc. , 69 (3), 614. J. A. (2006) Cadherin:catenin complex. A novel regulator of smooth muscle cell behaviour.
Atherosclerosis: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms by Sarah Jane George, Jason Johnson